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高三英语第三轮复习:定语从句和名词性从句小结  

2013-04-25 14:57:22|  分类: 英语专题 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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高三英语第三轮复习:定语从句和名词性从句小结 - 学海无涯 - 学海无涯的博客

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        考点一 关系代词引导的定语从句

1.whose是一个表示所属关系的词,在定语从句中作定语,of which可以代替whose指物,词序一般是名词+of which或of which+名词。of whom 可以代替whose指人,词序是名词+of whom。

Many children,whose parents are away working in big cities,are taken good care of in the village.

父母亲在大城市里打工的许多孩子在村庄里被照顾的非常好。

The old temple whose roof was damaged in a storm is now under repair.

那座在暴风雨中屋顶受损的古庙现在正在维修中。

2.which,that所代替的先行词是表示事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等。

先行词既有人又有物时,关系代词用that;which代指前面整个句子内容。

They talked for about an hour of things and people that they remembered in the school.

关于他们记得的上学时的人和事,他们讨论了一小时。

The Internet is a huge computer system which/that allows millions of people around the world to share information.

因特网是一个庞大的计算机系统,它使得世界上成千上万的人们共享信息成为可能。

3.who,whom,that这些词代替的先行词是表示人的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等。

The settlement is home to nearly 1,000 people,many of whom left their village homes for a better life in the city.

近千人在这一社区居住,他们当中很多都是从农村老家来城市寻求更好的日子的。

考点二 介词提前了的定语从句

1.与定语从句中的动词构成搭配。

In the dark street,there wasn't a single person to whom she could turn for help.

在漆黑的大街上没有一个人能为她提供帮助。

2.与定语从句所修饰的先行词构成搭配。

Patience,without which you can't do the work well,is a kind of quality.

耐心是一种品质。没有了耐心,你不能做好工作。

3.of+which/whom表示所属关系。(表所属关系也可用whose)

Recently I bought an ancient vase,the price of which(=whose price)was very reasonable.

最近我买了个古老的花瓶,它的价钱很合理。

考点三 关系副词引导的定语从句

1.关系副词在定语从句中作状语,when指时间,where指地点,why指原因,在定语从句中分别作时间状语、地点状语和原因状语。

Occasions are quite rare when I have time to spend a day with my kids.

我有时间和孩子们一起度过一天的机会很少。

After graduation I'd like to find a job where I can use what I have learnt at school.

毕业后我要找到一份能利用在学校所学知识的一份工作。

2.先行词是时间名词或地点名词时,如果在从句中不作状语,则不能用when或where引导定语从句,而要用which/that。

Is this the reason(that /which)he gave us for the delay of the project?

这是他给出工程推迟的原因吗?

考点四 先行词为point, situation, case等的定语从句

point,situation,case,activity等,从表面上看它们不是表地点的,但却表示类似地点的意义,因此它们作先行词时,如果引导词在从句中作状语,那么这个引导词要用where;如果不作状语,则用关系代词that/which。

It's helpful to put children in a situation where they can see themselves different.(where作状语)

把孩子放在一个能使他们从另外一个角度认识自己的环境中对他们有益。

I have reached a point in my life where I am supposed to make decisions of my own.(where作状语)

我已经到了应该自己作决定的那个人生阶段。

Now there is just one point that/which I wish you make quite clear.(which/that作宾语)

现在只有一点我希望你弄清楚。

考点五   主语从句

 主语从句在主句中作主语,位于主句谓语动词之前,但多数情况下由it作形式主语,而把真正的主语放在句子的后面,其句型结构为:It+be+n./adj.+that/whether/why/when+从句。

It never occurred to me that you could succeed in persuading him to change his mind.

我真的没有想到你能说服他改变主意。

It is uncertain what side effect the medicine will bring about,although about two thousand patients have taken it.

尽管已经有两千名病人服用了这种药品,但是,这种药品会带来什么副作用还不明确。

Whether there are living creatures in the outer space as those on Earth hasn't been proved up to now.

外太空是否存在像地球上一样的生物迄今尚未确定

考点六  同位语从句

1.同位语从句常放在fact,news,idea,truth,hope,problem,information,belief,thought,doubt 等名词的后面,是对前面的名词作进一步的解释,说明前面名词的具体含义。

There seems to be no possibility that Li Hua can win the first prize in the 100meter race.

看起来似乎李华在一百米比赛中没有可能获得一等奖。

There is a popular belief among the Europeans that chicken soup can help cure flu.

欧洲人普遍相信鸡汤可以帮助治愈流感。

The question has been raised at the meeting whether each member country should equally share the expense of the committee.

每一个成员国是否均等分担委员会的费用在会议上提出。

I have no idea when he will come back.

我不知道他将何时回来。

2.同位语从句与定语从句的区别:

同位语从句是对前面名词的内容作进一步的解释、说明,引导词只起引导作用,不在句中作任何成分,一般不可省略。定语从句是对前面名词进行修饰、限制,引导词在句中作一定的句子成分。

The news that they had won the game soon spread over the whole school.

他们赢得比赛的消息很快就传遍了整个学校。(此句为同位语从句,进一步解释“the news”的内容)

The news you told me yesterday was really disappointing.

你昨天告诉我的消息真的很令人失望。(此句是定语从句,它指的是“你昨天告诉我的那个消息”)

考点七   表语从句

表语从句在句中作表语,位于主句的系动词之后。引导表语从句的连词有that,whether,as if;疑问代词有who,what,which;疑问副词where,why,when,how等。

The problem is that we don't have much time left.

问题是我们剩下的时间很少。

My question is who is responsible for all this.

我的问题是谁对这事负责。

考点八“疑问词+ever”与“no matter+疑问词”的区别

“疑问词+ever”与“no matter+疑问词”虽然都有“无论……”的意思,但是用法有区别:“疑问词+ever”既可以引导名词性从句也可引导状语从句,而“no matter+疑问词只能用来引导状语从句。

The poor young man is ready to accept whatever help he can get.

这位可怜的年青人无论什么样的帮助都乐意接受。

The howto book can be of help to whoever wants to do the job.

指南类的书对想从事这项工作的人会有帮助。

Whatever/No matter what you say ,I will not believe you.

无论你说什么,我都不会相信你。 

 

语法训练及详细讲解

1.(2011年高考重庆卷) It is still under discussion________ the old bus station should be replaced with a modern hotel or not.

A.whether       B.when

C.which                D.where

解析:本题考查名词性从句。句意:那个旧公交车站是否应该被一家现代化宾馆所取代仍在讨论中。“It”作形式主语,“________the old bus station should be replaced with a modern hotel or not”作真正的主语。根据句意及题干中的“or not”可知答案为whether,“whether...or not”在名词性从句中意为:是否。

 答案:A

2.(2011年高考湖南卷) Before a problem can be solved, it must be obvious________the problem itself is.

A.what   B.that

C.which  D.why

解析:本题考查名词性从句。句意:在一个问题得到解决之前,必须要清楚问题本身是什么。根据句子结构可知it作形式主语,后面的“________ the problem itself is ”作真正的主语,该从句缺少表语,故用what引导。

 答案:A

3.(2011年高考四川卷) The school shop,________customers are mainly students,is closed for the holidays.

A.which  B.whose

C.when   D.where

解析:句意:这家校内商店放假时关门,它的顾客主要是学生。考查定语从句。本句没有并列连词也没有从属连词,故可判断逗号后面是非限制性定语从句;本句先行词是the school shop,还原到从句后为:The school shop's customers are  mainly students.因此选B,用whose引导定语从句,关系代词whose在从句中作定语。

 答案:B

4.(2011年高考山东卷)The old town has narrow streets and small houses________are built close to each other.

A.they  B.where

C.what  D.that

解析:句意:这个古老的小镇拥有建造得彼此靠得很近的狭窄街道和小房子。本题考查定语从句。先行词是narrow streets and small houses,还原到从句中作主语,所以用关系代词that。A和C不能引导定语从句;B是关系副词,不能作主语。

 答案:D

5.(2011年高考湖南卷)Julie was good at German, French and Russian,all of________she spoke fluently.

A.who   B.whom

C.which  D.that

解析:句意:Julie擅长德语、法语和俄语,所有的(三门语言)她都说得很流利。先行词为German,French,Russian,代入定语从句后为:She spoke all of the three languages  fluently.由此可见,先行词在定语从句中作of的宾语,先行词指“物”,且介词提前,故用which。

 答案:C

6.(2012年武汉联考)Faced with trouble or difficulty,a person takes________ help that is available.

A.whatever          B.whenever

C.wherever                    D.however

解析:句意:面对困难或挫折,一个人会接受任何可能得到的帮助。whatever在此修饰help,意为“无论什么”,而其他三个选项,不作形容词,不能修饰名词,故排除。

 答案:A

7.  (2011年银川调研)She is very dear to us. We have been prepared to do________ it takes to save her life.

A.whichever  B.however

C.whatever   D.whoever

解析:句意:她对我们弥足珍贵。我们已经准备好尽一切努力挽救她的生命。这里的whatever既作take的宾语,也引导do后的宾语从句。

 答案:C

8.(2011年郑州调研)Being angry is OK, but knowing how to tell someone________made you angry is important.

A.that  B.which

C.why  D.what

解析:考查名词性从句。句意:生气没什么,但是知道如何告诉别人什么导致你生气是很重要的。tell someone之后是宾语从句,且从句缺少主语,因此空处填what。

 答案:D

9.Mother bought many tomatoes from the market two days ago, ________some have gone bad due to the bad weather.

A.of those   B.from which

C.of which  D.in which

解析:考查定语从句。此处表示“其中的一些西红柿”,故用“介词+关系代词”引导非限制性定语从句。

 答案:C

10.Everyone will go through life's stages of ups and downs,________selfrespect plays a key role in the maturity of a person.

A.when  B.which

C. as      D. that

解析:考查定语从句。句意:每个人都将经历人生的浮沉阶段,其间,自尊在一个人的成熟过程中起着关键作用。根据句意可知,后半句是定语从句,when在从句中作状语。

 答案:A

11.(2012年扬州测试)________you didn't know the rules won't be an excuse for your failure to report.

A.That   B.Where

C.What  D.Why

解析:考查主语从句。句意:不要把你不知道规则作为你报道失败的借口。that引导陈述句作主语,that不能省略。

 答案:A

12.(2012年南京模拟)In recent years, there has been a heated argument about________it is necessary for children to learn English from an early age.

A.whether  B.if

C.what     D.that

解析:考查宾语从句。空白处在介词about之后,表示“是否”之意,且在介词之后引导宾语从句,只能用whether,介词后通常不用if引导宾语从句。

 答案:A

13.The whole family were worried about Jane because no one was aware________she had gone.

A.that where  B.of the place which

 C.of what   D.of where

解析:句意:全家人都为詹妮担心,因为没人知道她去哪里了。be aware of知道,为固定搭配;where引导的从句作介词of的宾语。

 答案:D

14.As a teacher,I seldom give my students so difficult a problem________they cannot work out.

A.that         B. if

C.in order that  D.as

解析:句意:作为老师,我很少给我的学生难以解决的问题。先行词为so difficult a problem,代入定语从句后为:They cannot work out so difficult a problem.由此可见先行词在定语从句中作宾语。“so或such+名词”作先行词、且先行词在定语从句中作主语、宾语或表语时,需用as引导定语从句。本题易误选为A项,用that引导状语从句,但状语从句应是完整的,所以,如选A项,题干应该为:As a teacher,I seldom give my students so difficult a problem that  they cannot work it  out.作为老师,我很少给我的学生如此难的问题以至他们不能解决。

 答案:D

15.-How are you getting along with your project?

-I was about to give up when an idea occurred to me________I could work with my roommate Tim.

A.that  B.how

C.why  D.whether

解析:考查名词性从句。从句I could work with my roommate Tim句意完整,不缺少成分,因此使用that引导同位语从句解释说明idea的内容。

 答案:A

 

 状语从句小结

 形容词、副词小结

 情态动词和虚拟语气小结

 特殊句式小结

 介词和代词小结

 冠词、名词小结

 非谓语动词小结

 动词时态和语态小结

 动词和动词短语小结

 定语从句和名词性从句小结

 

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