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高中英语语法第一轮复习-连词  

2012-12-27 14:16:34|  分类: 英语专题 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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一、概说

连词是一种虚词,用于连接单词、短语、从句或句子,在句子不单独用作句子成分。连接按其性质可分为并列连词和从属连词。并列连词用于连接并列的单词、短语、从句或句子,如and, but, or, for等;从属连词主要引出名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句等)和状语从句(时间状语从句、条件状语从句、目的状语从句等),引出名词性从句的连词如that, whether等,引出状语从句的连词如when, because, since, if 等。

二、并列连词的用法

1. and的用法

(1) 表示联合,意为“和”、“又”、“而且”:

We were cold and hungry. 我们饥寒交迫。

I woke up and got out of bed. 我醒了就起床了。

He played the piano and she sang. 他弹钢琴,她唱歌。

(2) 有时用于连接两个相同的词语,表示事物连续性:

The train ran faster and faster. 火车开得越来越快。

We waited for hours and hours. 我们一直等了好几个小时。

The boys laughed and laughed. 这些孩子笑个不停。

注:但有时连接两个相同名词表示不同的质量和种类:

There are dictionaries and dictionaries. 词典很多,有好有坏。

Don’t worry—there are rules and rules. 别担心——规则与规则不一样。

(3) 在口语中用在 come, go, run, stay, stop, try 等之后表示目的,大致相当于相当于不定式符号 to:

Come and have tea with me. 过来跟我一起喝杯茶。

We ought to stop and think. 我们应该停下来想一想。

(4) 有时用在祈使句后,表示结果,意为“那么”:

Work hard and you’ll succeed. 努力干吧,你会成功的。

Arrive late once more and you’re fired. 你再迟一次,你就会被开除。

比较:If you work hard, you’ll succeed. 如果你努力干,你会成功的。

(5) 有时表示对比(有类似but的意思):

He is rich, and (yet) leads a modest life. 他很富有,但却过着朴素的生活。

Robert is secretive and David is candid. 罗伯特深藏不露,而戴维则有啥说啥。

(6) 用在 good, nice, fine 等之后,表示“很”,“挺”:

It’s nice and cool under the tree. 这树下很凉快。

The book is good and expensive. 这本书很贵。

2. or的用法

(1) 表示选择

Would you prefer tea or coffee? 你喜欢茶还是咖啡?

Do you want a bath at once, or shall I have mine first? 是你马上洗澡,还是我先洗?

(2) 表示一种否定的条件

Get up or you’ll be late for school. 起床吧,否则你上学会迟到了。

Hurry up, or you’ll miss the last bus. 快点,要不你会赶不上最后一班车。

注:第一句的or等于if you don’t get up now,第二句的or等于if you don’t hurry up。此时的or也可换成or else或otherwise。

3. but的用法

but主要用于表示转折:

They are poor but proud. 他们人穷志不穷。

He drives not carefully but slowly. 他开车不够小心,但开得很慢。

He tried but without success. 他努力了但没有成功。

【注】不要按汉语意思将“虽然…但是…”直译为although…but…:

误:Though we are poor, but we are happy.(去掉though或but中任一个)

4. yet的用法

与but一样,yet也主要用于转折:

It is strange yet true. 这很奇怪,却是真的。

I have failed, yet I shall try again. 我失败了,但我还要尝试。

注:有时可与并列连词and或but连用,构成习语and yet和but yet,且两者大致同义(均相当于表转折的but):

She drove very fast to the airport, but [yet, and yet, but yet] she missed the plane. 她开快车去机场,可还是误了飞机。

5. for的用法

for主要用于表示理由:

He must be out, for there is no light in the room. 他准是出去了,因为屋里没有灯。

She does not go out in the winter, for she feels the cold a great deal. 她冬天不出门,因为他特别怕冷。

【注】for表示结果通常不能放句首,也不能单独使用。

6. so的用法

so主要用于表结果:

There were no buses, so I came by bicycle. 没有公共汽车,所以我就骑自行车来了。

The door was locked, so we couldn’t get in. 门上锁了,所以我们进不去。

It was dark, so I couldn’t see what was happening. 天很黑,所以我看不见发生了什么事。

I’m off on holiday, so I won’t be seeing you for a bit. 我要外出度假,所以有一段时间我就见不着你了。

【注】(1) 有时可与并列连词and连用,构成习语and so(相当so):

He told me to do it and so I did it. 他叫我那么做,所以我就做了。

(2) 不要按汉语意思将“因为…所以…”直译为because…so…:

误:Because we was ill, so he couldn’t come.(去掉because或so中任意一个)

7. both…and…的用法

其意为“…和…都”、“不但…而且…”、“既…又…”:

She both speaks and writes Japanese. 她不仅会说日语,而且还会写。

He spoke with both kindness and understanding. 他说话既亲切又明事理。

【注】作为关联并列连词,它通常应连接两个相同性质的句子成分,但有时后一成分可能省略与前一成分相同的词。另外,若连接两个成分作主语时,谓语要用复数。

8. either…or…的用法

其意为“要么…要么…”、“不是…就是…”:

Either come in or go out. 要么进来,要么出去。

I want to visit either Paris or London. 我想去巴黎或伦敦游览一下。

Either he did not speak distinctly or I did not hear well. 不是他没讲清楚,就是我没听明白。

【注】通常应连接两个相同性质的句子成分,但有时后一成分可能省略与前一成分相同的词。若连接两个成分作主语,其谓语通常与靠近的主语保持一致:

You can either have tea or coffee. 你喝茶也行,喝咖啡也行。

Either you or I am wrong. 不是你错,就是我错。

9. neither…nor…的用法

其意为“既不…也不…”、“…和…都不”:

I have neither time nor money. 我既无时间又无钱。

I neither smoke nor drink. 我既不抽烟也不喝酒。

He neither knows nor cares what happened. 他对所发生的事不闻不问。

This is neither my fault nor yours. 这既不怪我,也不怪你。

【注】通常应连接两个相同性质的句子成分,但有时后一成分可能省略与前一成分相同的词。若连接两个成分作主语,其谓语通常与靠近的主语保持一致:

Mary neither likes maths nor (likes) history. 玛丽既不喜欢数学也不喜欢历史。

Neither Jim and Jack was at home. 吉姆和杰克都不在家。

但在非正式文体中也可一律用复数:

Neither Jim and Jack were at home. 吉姆和杰克都不在家。

10. not only…but also…的用法

其意为“不但…而且…”:

Not only men but also women were chosen. 选中的不仅有男的也有女的。

He not only read the book, but also remembered what he read. 他不仅读过这本书,而且还记得书中的内容。

【注】该结构中的also有时可省略,或与but分开用,或用too, as well代之(位于句末):

Not only is he funny, but he is witty too [as well]. 他不但风趣,而且也很机智。

若连接两个成分作主语,其谓语通常与靠近的主语保持一致:

Not only you but also he has to leave. 不只是你,他也得离开。

11. 涉及并列连词and和but的典型试题

请做以下各组试题,注意其中有无and和but所导致所选答案的变化:

It ______ fine, we went out for a walk. (选C)

It ______ fine, and we went out for a walk.(选A)

A. was                      B. is                         C. being                    D. were

There I saw five people, the teacher _______.(选A)

There I saw five people, and the teacher _______.(选B)

A. included               B. was included         C. including              D. was including

He bought a lot of books, most of _______ are about agriculture.(选D)

He bought a lot of books, and most of _______ are about agriculture.(选A)

A. them                    B. books                   C. his                       D. which

He wrote a lot of book, none of _______ were popular. (选D)

He wrote a lot of book, but none of _______ were popular.(选A)

A. them                    B. books                   C. his                       D. which

三、从属连词的用法

1. 引导时间状语从句的从属连词

(1) 表示“当…时候”或“每当”的时间连词。主要的 when, while, as, whenever:

He jumped up when the phone rang. 电话铃响时他吓了一跳。

We listened while the teacher read. 老师朗读时我们听着。

The phone rang just as I was leaving. 我正要离开,电话铃就响了起来。

(2) 表示“在…之前(或之后)”的时间连词。主要的有before, after:

Turn the lights off before you leave. 离开前请关灯。

He started the job soon after he left the university. 他大学毕业后就开始做这份工作。

(3) 表示“自从”或“直到”的时间连词。主要的有since, until, till:

He has lived here since he got married. 他结婚后就一直住在这儿。

Most men worked until [till] they’re 65. 大多数男人工作到65岁。

(4) 表示“一…就”的时间连词。主要的有as soon as, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant, immediately, directly, instantly, once, no sooner…than, hardly…when等:

Tell him the news as soon as you see him. 你一见到他就把这消息告诉他。

I recognized her the moment (that) I saw her. 我一看到她就认出她来了。

I want to see him the minute (that) he arrives. 他一到来我就要见他。

I went home directly I had finished work. 我一干完活就回家了。

Once he arrives, we can start. 他一来我们就可以开始。

(5) 表示“上次”、“下次”、“每次”等的时间连词。主要的有every time(每次),each time(每次),(the) next time(下次),any time(随时),(the) last time(上次),the first time(第一次):

Last time I saw him, he looked ill. 上次我见到他的时候,他好像有病。

Next time you’re in London come and visit us. 你下次来伦敦过来探望我们。

Do look me up next time you’re in London. 你下次到伦敦来,一定来找我。

Every time I call on him, he is out. 我每次去访问他,他都不在。

You can call me any time you want to. 你随时都可以给我打电话。

【注】在时间状语从句中,通常要用一般现在时表示将来意义,而不能直接使用将来时态。

2. 引导条件状语从句的从属连词

这类连词主要有if, unless, as [so] long as, in case 等:

If anyone calls tell them I’m not at home. 要是有人打电话来,就说我不在家。

You will fail unless you work hard. 你若不努力就会失败。

As [So] long as you need me, I’ll stay. 只要你需要我,我就留下。

In case I forget, please remind me about it. 万一我忘记,请请醒我一下。

【注】在条件状语从句中,通常要用一般现在时表示将来意义,而不能直接使用将来时态。不过,有时表示条件的 if之后可能用 will,但那不是将来时态, 而是表示意愿或委婉的请求(will为情态动词):

If you will wait a moment, I’ll fetch the money.  请等一下,我就去拿钱。

3. 引导目的状语从句的从属连词

主要的有 in order that, so that, in case, for fear等:

We used the computer in order that we might save time. 我们使用计算机是为了节约时间。

Speak clearly so that they may understand you. 说清楚,以便让他们能明白你的意思。

Be quiet in case you should wake the baby. 安静些,免得把婴儿吵醒。

He is working hard for fear he should fail. 他努力工作以免会失败。

4. 引导结果状语从句的从属连词

主要的有so that, so…that, such…that等:

We’re all here now, so that the meeting can begin at last. 我们现在都到齐了,终于能开会了。

It’s so difficult a question that none of us can answer it. 那是一个很难的问题,我们没有一个人能回答。

He shut the window with such force that the glass broke. 他关窗子用力很大,结果玻璃震破了。

【注】so that 中的that在口语中通常可以省略。

5. 引导原因状语从句的从属连词

主要的有because, as, since, seeing (that), now (that), considering (that) 等:

He couldn’t got to school because he had a cold. 他因患感冒而未能去上学。

Since everybody is here, let’s begin our discussion. 大家都到了,我们就开始吧。

Seeing that it is 8 o’clock, we’ll wait no longer. 由于时间已到8点,我们将不再等了。

Now that you are here, you’d better stay. 你既然来了,最好还是留下吧。

6. 引导让步状语从句的从属连词

主要的有although, though, even though, even if, while, however, whatever, whoever, whenever, wherever等:

Although [Though] he is poor, he is well contented. 他虽穷却能知足常乐。

Though [Even though] it’s hard work, I enjoy it. 尽管是苦活,但我乐意干。

Even if you don’t like wine, try a glass of this. 即使你不喜欢渴酒,也尝尝这杯吧。

While we don’t agree we continue to be friends. 尽管我们意见不同,但我们还是朋友。

However you use it, it won’t break. 不管你怎么使用,它都不会破。

Whatever you say, I believe you. 无论你说什么,我都相信你。

Whoever telephones, tell them I’m out. 不管是谁打电话,都说我出去了。

Whenever you come, you are welcome. 你什么时候来,我们都欢迎。

However much he eats, he never gets fat. 无论他吃多少, 他都不发胖。

7. 引导方式状语从句的从属连词

主要的有as, like, as if, as though, the way等:

Do it as [like] he does. 像他那样做。

He behaved as of nothing had happened. 他装作若无其事的样子。

They treat me as though I were a stranger. 他们待我如陌生人。

Nobody else loves you the way(=as) I do.  没有人像我这样爱你。

8. 引导地点状语从句的从属连词

主要的有where, wherever, everywhere等:

There were lots of parks where I lived. 我住的地方有许多公园。

Sit wherever you like. 你想坐在那儿就坐在那儿。

Everywhere they went, they were warmly welcomed. 他们每到一个地方都受到热烈欢迎。

9. 引导比较状语从句的从属连词

主要的有than和as…as:

It’s easier than I thought. 这比我想像的要容易。

They are as often wrong as they are right. 他们错对各半。

四、几组从属连词的用法区别

1. when, while & as

三者可表示“当…时候”,区别如下:

(1) 若主句表示的是一个短暂性动作,从句表示的是一个持续性动作,三者都可用:

He fell asleep when [while, as] he was reading. 他看书时睡着了。

【注】as 用于引出一个持续性动词表示“在…期间”时,其谓语通常只能是那些含有动作(action)和发展(development) 意味的动词,一般不能是那些不用于进行时态的动词(如 be, seem, love, want, agree, see, know, have 等),所以下面一句中的 while 不能换为 as:

A:I’m going to the post office. 我要去邮局。

B:While you’re there, can you get me some stamps? 当你在邮局时,能帮我买几张邮票吗?

(2) 若主、从句表示两个同时进行的持续性动作,且强调主句表示的动作延续到从句所指的整个时间,通常要用 while:

Don’t talk while you’re eating. 吃饭时不要说话。

I kept silent while he was writing. 在他写的时候,我默不作声。

但是,若主从句表示的两个同时进行的动作含有“一边…一边”之意思,通常用 as:

She sang as she went along. 她边走边唱。

(3) 若从句是一个短暂性动作,主句是一个持续性动作,可用 as / when 但不用 while:

It was raining hard when [as] we arrived. 我们到达时正下着大雨。

(4) 若主从句表示的是两个同时(或几乎同时)发生的短暂性动作,用 as / when:

I thought of it just when [as] you opened your mouth. 就在你要说的时候,我也想到了。

(5) 若要表示两个正在发展变化的情况,相当于汉语的“随着”,一般用 as:

Things are getting better and better as time goes on. 随着时间的推移,情况越来越好。

As it grew darker, it became colder. 天色越晚,天气越冷。

(6) 表示“每当…的时候”(暗示一种规律性),一般要用 when:

It’s cold when it snows. 下雪时天冷。

He smiles when you praise him. 你夸奖他时他总是笑笑。

(7) 若主从句所表示的动作不是同时发生,而是有先后顺序时,一般要用 when:

I will go home when he comes back. 他回来时,我就回家去。

(8) when 可用作并列连词,表示“这时(突然)”;while 也可以用作并列连词,表示“而”、“却”(表示对比);但 as 则没有类似用法:

We were about to start when it began to rain. 我们正要出发,这时天开始下雨了。

He likes coffee, while she likes tea. 他喜欢咖啡,而她却喜欢茶。

(9) as 和 when 后均可直接跟一个名词,构成省略句,但 while 一般不这样用:

As [When] a boy, he lived in Japan. 他小时候在日本。

(10) when 和 while 后可接现在分词、介词短语、形容词等构成省略句,但 as 一般不这样用:

When [While] reading, he fell asleep. 他看书时睡着了。

When [While] in trouble, ask her for help.  遇到麻烦的时候你就去找她帮忙。

2. because, since, as & for

这四个词都可用来表示原因,区别如下:

(1) 关于 because:语气最强,表示直接原因,可用于回答 why 提出的问题、引导表语从句、用于强调句等,而其余三者均不行:

"Why didn’t he come?" " Because he was ill." “他为什么没来?”“因为他病了。”

It is because he is too busy. 那是因为他太忙了。

It is because he is honest that I like him.  是因为他诚实我才喜欢他。

(2) 关于 since 与 as:

1) 两者所表示的原因都是人们已知的,即对已知事实提供理由,而不是表示直接原因。since 比 as 语气稍强,且比 as 略为正式,它们引导的从句通常放在主句之前,有时也放在主句之后:

As you weren’t there, I left a message. 由于你不在那儿,我留了个口信。

Since you are wrong, you should apologize. 你既然错了,就应该道歉。

2) since 可用于省略句,而其他三者不行:

Since so, I have nothing to say. 既然如此,我无话可说。

(3) 关于 for:是并列连词(其余三者为从属连词),它有时可表示因果关系(通常要放在主句之后,且可与 because 换用);有时不表示因果关系,而是对前面分句内容的解释或推断(也要放在主句之后,但不能与because 换用)。比较:

The ground is wet, for (=because) it rained last night. 地面是湿的,因为昨晚下过雨。

It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet this morning.  昨晚一定下过雨,你看今天早上地面是湿的。 (此句不能用 because 代 for)

3. although & though

两者均表示“虽然”,区别如下:

(1) 用作连词,表示“虽然”,两者大致同义,可换用,只是 although 比 though  更为正式:

Though [Although] it was raining,we went there. 虽然下着雨,但我们还是去了那儿。

(2) although 一般不用作副词,而 though 可用作副词,且一般放在句末(不放在句首),意为“可是”、“不过”:

It’s hard work; I enjoy it though.  工作很辛苦,可是我乐意干。

(3) 在 as though(好像,仿佛),even though(即使,纵然)等固定短语中不能用 although:

He talks as though he knew anything.  他夸夸其谈好像无所不知。

(4) though 引导的让步状语从句可用部分倒装的形式(注意:倒装后位于句首的名词之前不用冠词),但 although 一般不这样用:

Poor though I am, I can afford it.   我虽穷,但这东西还是买得起的。

Child though he was, he did quite well.  他虽是孩子,但干得很好。

六、重点考点原创精练

1. The building must be saved, ______ the cost.

A. what                    B. which                   C. whatever               D. whichever

2. They kept trying ______ they must have known it was hopeless.

A. if                         B. because                 C. when                    D. where

3. _____ completed, the new railway will run for 250 miles.(when)

A. While                   B. When                   C. As                        D. Since

4. I’ll cook plenty of potatoes just ______ they decide to stay for dinner.

A. because                B. when                    C. in case                  D. since

5. Get out of there at once. _____ not, I’ll phone the police.(if)

A. Since                   B. If                         C. Why                     D. When

6. _____ I met him last week, it was the first time we had seen each other _____ we were at school.

A. When, that            B. When, since          C. Since, when          D. Since, that

7. _____ they’ve got to know each other a little better, they get along just fine.

A. Now that              B. Before                  C. If                         D. How

8. We’ve bought a cottage in the country for ____ we retire.

A. when                    B. if                         C. since                    D. that

9. ______ food is hard to find, few birds remain throughout the year.

A. Where                  B. What                    C. Whose                  D. Which

10. _____ she goes, there are crowds of people waiting to see her.

A. Wherever             B. However               C. Whichever            D. Whoever

11. We should report any incident, _____.

A. however serious or minor it is                B. how serious or minor is it

C. it is how serious or minor                      D. it is however serious or minor

12. Would you care to wait here, sir, ______ the manager can see you?

A. when                    B. since                    C. until                     D. while

13. Marsha got so carried away when arguing with her husband ______ she hit him.

A. since                    B. and                      C. until                     D. that

14. It could be weeks ______ we know the full cost of the accident.

A. that                      B. since                    C. after                     D. before

15. She is getting better by degrees, but it will be some time ______ she is completely well.

A. that                      B. since                    C. when                    D. before

16. _____ we could afford it, we wouldn’t go abroad for our holidays.

A. Even                    B. If                         C. Even if                 D. Even as

17. She loves giving parties, and does so ______ she can find an excuse.

A. however               B. whatever               C. whichever             D. whenever

 

参考答案:1—5 CCBCB  6—10 BAAAA  11—15 ACDDD  16—17 CD

 

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