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高中英语语法第一轮复习-动词时态(二)  

2012-12-27 13:49:19|  分类: 英语专题 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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七、过去完成时

1. 过去完成时的基本用法

过去完成时与现在完成时相似,也有“已完成”和“未完成”两种用法,所不同的是,过去完成时将时间推移到过去某一时间之前,即所谓的“过去的过去”。具体地说,它既可表示在过去某一时间之前已完成的动作,也可表示从一个较早的过去持续一个较迟的过去的动作:

He had left when I arrived. 当我到达时他已经离开。

By six o’clock he had worked twelve hours. 到6点钟时他就已工作了12小时。

2. 如何正确运用过去完成时

正确运用过去完成时最重要的是要正确理解“过去的过去”。“过去的过去”是一个相对时间,即它相对于一个过去时间而言,并在其过去。这种相对的“过去的过去”有时通过一定的时间副词(状语)体现出来,有时则可能是通过一定的上下文来体现:

I found the watch which I had lost. 我找到了我丢失的表。

The house was quiet. Everybody had gone to bed. 屋子里很安静,大家都睡觉了。

"Was Jack at the office?" "No, he’d gone home." “杰克在办公室吗?”“不在,回家了。”

有些通常与现在完成时连用的词语,由于在一定的语境中,谓语动作移到了“过去的过去”,也应用过去完成时:

Yesterday he told me that he hadn’t eaten anything since Tuesday. 他昨天告诉我自星期二以来他一直未吃任何东西。(指从星期二至昨天未吃东西)

3. 过去完成时表示过去未曾实现的想法与打算

过去完成时可表示过去未曾实现的想法和打算,通常连用的动词是 want, think, hope, plan, mean, expect, intend, suppose 等:

I had meant to come, but something happened. 我本想来,但有事就没有来。

I had intended to speak, but time did not permit. 我本想发言,但时间不允许。

We had hoped that you would come to see us, but you didn’t. 我们本想你来看我们的,但你没有来。

4. 过去完成时与一般过去时的用法比较

从用法上说,一般过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或存在的状态,而过去完成时则表示过去某一时间以前(即过去的过去)发生的动作或存在的状态。但有时某个动作虽然发生在“过去的过去”,但却也可用一般过去时,如:

(1) 当几个过去的动作用and, then, but等连接,且按照动作发生的先后顺序表达时,几个动作均可用一般过去:

I bought a radio but lost it. 我买了一部收音机,但丢了。

He stood up, took his coat and went out. 他站起身来,拿起外套,然后就出去了。

(2) 由after, before, as soon as 等连词引导时间状语从句,由于这些连词已经清楚地表明了主从句谓语动词的先后顺序,所以对于先发生的动作也可用一般过去时表示:

I told them the news after you (had) left. 你走后我把这消息告诉了他们。

As soon as I (had) put the phone down it rang again. 我刚把电话一放下,它又响了。 

(3) 在一定的语境中,表示过去未曾实现想法或打算的过去完成时也可用一般过去时表示:

He hoped to come with us, but he was too busy. 他本想同我们一起来的,但他太忙了。

I thought I could go, but I can’t. 我原认为我能去,但我(现在)去不了。

注:若没有明确的语境,则宜用过去完成时表示过去未曾实现的想法,否则可能有歧义,如说I hoped to pass the examination. 它只表明过去想通过考试,但并未说明通过与否。如说 I had hoped to pass the examination,则表示过去想通过考试,但实际上未通过。不过在过去式后接不定式的完成式也可明确表示过去未曾实现的想法,如 I hoped to have passed the examination。

八、现在进行时

1. 现在进行时的基本用法

现在进行时主要表示说话人的说话时刻正在进行的动作、不断重复的动作或目前这个阶段(不一定是说话时刻)正在进行的动作:

We’re having a meeting. 我们在开会。(说话时正在进行的动作)

Be quiet! The baby is sleeping. 安静,孩子在睡觉。

He is teaching in a middle school. 他在一所中学教书。(目前阶段在进行的动作)

2. 现在进行时表将来

现在进行时表将来,主要表示按计划或安排要发生的动作:

I’m leaving tomorrow. 我明天走。

They’re getting married next month. 他们下个月结婚。

现在进行时与一般现在时均可表示将来,区别是:用现在进行时表示将来,其计划性较强,并往往暗示一种意图;而一般现在时表示将来,则其客观性较强,即通常被视为客观事实,多指按时刻表或规定要发生的情况:

I’m not going out this evening. 今晚我不准备出去。

What time does the train leave? 火车什么时候开?

3. 现在进行时表示感色彩

现在进行时有时可表示满意、称赞、惊讶、厌恶等感情色彩,通常与 always, forever, constantly, continually等副词连用。比较:

She’s always helping people. 她老是帮助别人。(表赞扬)

She always helps others. 他总是帮助别人。(陈述一个事实)

The boy is constantly lying. 这孩子老是撒谎。(表示厌恶)

The boy often lies. 这孩子常撒谎。(指出缺点)

4. 动词be的现在进行时

主要用于表示一时的表现或暂时存在的状态。比较:

He is foolish. 他很傻。(生性如此)

He is being foolish. 他显得很傻。(指一时的表现,并非总是如此)

He is friendly. 他很友好。(长期如此)

He is being friendly. 他显得很友好。(指暂时的表现,而且不一定真诚)

注:“be+形容词”用于现在进行时时,其中的形容词通常只能是angry, careful, careless, clever, foolish, stupid, kind, friendly, brave, rude, polite等动态形容词,而big, tall, beautiful 等静态形容词不能这样用的。

九 、过去进行时

1. 过去进行的基本用法

主要表示过去某一时间正在进行的动作:

He fell asleep when he was reading. 他看书时睡着了。

We were expecting you yesterday. 我们昨天一直在等你。

He was playing while I was studying. 我在做功课时他在玩。

2. 过去进行时表示现在

用过去进行时表示现在主要是为了使语气委婉、客气:

I was wondering if you could give me a lift. 我不知你能否让我搭一下车。

We were hoping you would stay with us. 我们很希望你能跟我们住在一起。

How much did you want to spend, sir? 先生,您打算花多少钱?

注:一般过去时也有类似用法,但比较而言,用过去进行时显得更客气,更不肯定。

3. 过去进行时表示感情色彩

与现在进行时相似,过去进行时也可表示满意、称赞、惊讶、厌恶等感情色彩,也通常与 always, forever, continually等副词连用:

They were always quarrelling. 他们老是吵架。

The boy was continually asking questions. 这个男孩子老是问东问西的。

4. 动词be的过去进行时

动词be的进行时也可表示过去一时的表现或暂时的状态。比较:

He was friendly. 他很友好。(指过去长期如此)

He was being friendly. 他当时显得很友好。(指当时一时的表现)

参见动词be的现在进行时的相应用法。

5. 过去进行时和一般过去时的用法比较

两者的基本差别是过去进行时通常表示一个过去正在进行且尚未完成的动作,而一般过去时则通常表示一个过去已经完成的动作:

I was reading a book last night. 我昨晚在看书。(不一定看完)

I read a book last night. 我昨晚看了一本书。(已经看完)

They were building a bridge there. 他们在那里修一座桥。(不一定建成)

They built a bridge there. 他们在那儿修了一座桥。(已建成)

注:有些动词(如rain, snow, cough, wear, feel, work等)本身并不表示动作完成,这时用两种时态都可以,且含义区别不大:

It rained [was raining] all day yesterday. 昨天下了一天的雨。

She didn’t feel [wasn’t feeling] well that day. 那天她感到不太舒服。

十、将来进行时

1. 将来进行时的基本用法

表示将来某一时间正在进行的动作:

Don’t phone me between 5 and 6. We’ll be having dinner then. 五点至六点之间不要给我打电话,那时我们在吃饭。

When I get home, my wife will probably be watching television. 当我到家时,我太太可能正在看电视。

2. 将来进行时表示按计划或安排要发生的动作:

I will be seeing you next week. 我下个星期来看你。

I’ll be taking my holidays soon. 不久我将度假了。

We shall be going to London next week. 下周我们要去伦敦。

3. 将来进行时表示委婉语气

有时用将来进行时可使语气更委婉:

Will you be having some tea? 喝点茶吧。

Will you be needing anything else? 你还需要什么吗?

4. 将来进行时与一般将来时的比较 

(1) 两者基本用法不一样:将来进行时表示将来某时正在进行的动作,一般将来时表示将来某时将要发生的动作:

What will you be doing this time tomorrow? 明天这个时候你会在做什么呢?

What will you do tomorrow? 你明天干什么?

(2) 两者均可表示将来,但用将来进行时语气更委婉,比较:

When will you finish these letters? 你什么什假处理完这些信件?(直接询问,如上司对下属)

When will you be seeing Mr White? 你什么时候见怀特先生?(委婉地询问,如下属对上司)

When will you pay back the money? 你什么时候还钱?(似乎在直接讨债)

When will you be paying back the money? 这钱你什么时候还呢?(委婉地商量)

(3) 有时一般将来中的will含有“愿意”的意思,而用将来进行时则只是单纯地谈未来情况:

Mary won’t pay this bill. 玛丽不肯付这笔钱。(表意愿)

Mary won’t be paying this bill. 不会由玛丽来付钱。(单纯谈未来情况) 

十一、将来完成时

1. 将来完成时的基本用法

表示到将来某个时间为止势必会完成或预计要完成的动作,由“will [shall]+have+过去分词”构成:

When we get there,she’ll have gone to work. 我们到那里时她会已上班去了。

On Monday he’ll have been in Britain for three years. 到星期一,他在英国就满三年了。

2. 现在完成时、过去完成时与将来完成的用法比较

现在完成时以现在时间为参照点,表示在“现在”以前完成的动作或持续到“现在”的状态,过去完成时则以过去时间为参照点,表示在“过去”某一时间以前发生的动作或持续到“过去”某一时间的状态,将来完成时则以将来时间为参照点,表示在“将来”某一时间为止已经完成的动作或持续到“将来”某一时间的状态:

He has finished writing his novel. 他已写完了他的小说。

He had finished writing his novel by the end of last year. 去年年底他就写完他的小说。

He will have finished writing his novel by the end of next year. 到明年年底他就会写完他的小说了。

与一般现在时代替一般将来时一样,在表示时间或者条件的状语从句,通常要用现在完成时来表示将来完成时,而不能直接使用将来完成时:

I will go with you when I have finished my work. 等我完成工作之后我就同你去。

若不强调动作的完成(且不致于引起歧义),有时也可用一般现在时:

I will go with you when I finish my work. 我完成工作后就同你去。

十二、现在完成进行时

1. 现在完成进行的基本用法

表示现在以前这一段时间里一直在正进行的动作,这动作可能仍在进行,也可能已停止:

It has been raining since last Sunday. 自上周星期日以来就一直在下雨。

He’s been watching television all day. 他看了一天电视了。

现在完成进行时有时表示根据直接或间接的证据得出的结论:

She is very tired. She’s been typing letters all day. 她很累了,她整天都在打信件。

Her eyes are red. She has been crying. 她眼睛红了。她一直在哭。

2. 现在完成进行时与现在完成时的区别

(1) 现在完成时可以表示一个已经完成的动作,而现在完成进行时则表示一个正在进行的动作:

I have read the book. 我读过这本书。

I have been reading the book. 我一直在读这本书。

注:有少数动词(如work, study, live, teach, stay等)在表示持续一时间时用这两种时态含义差不多(只是用现在完成进行进更强调动作的持续性):

How long have you worked [been working] here? 你在这儿工作多久了?

I’ve lived [been living] here since 1988. 自1988年以来我就一直住在这儿。

(2) 现在完成时通常只陈述事实,而现在完成进行时还可表示一种感色彩:

I have waited for two hours. 我等了两小时。(陈述事实)

I have been waiting for two hours. 我等了两个小时。(等得好辛苦)

(3) 现在完成进行时通常用来谈论较短暂的动作或情况,若要谈论时间延续较长的动作或情况或永久性情况,则通常用现在完成时:

He has lived in Paris. 他(一直)住在巴黎。

He has been living in Paris. 他(目前)住在巴黎。(表暂时性)

(4) 不用于进行时态的动词通常也不用于现在完成进行时,但它们可以用于现在完成时:

I’ve only known her for two day. 我认识她刚刚两天。

They’ve been married for twenty years. 他们结婚已二十年了。

The war has lasted for a long time. 这场战争持续了很长时间。

(5) 现在完成进行时不用于被动语态形式,若要用可用现在完成时的被动语态形式代替:

The house has been painted for a month. 这房子已漆了一个月。

The problem has been studied for five days. 这个问题已研究了五天。

十三、过去将来完成时

过去将来完成时表示在过去看来将来某时会已经完成的动作,它由“would+have+过去分词”构成:

She said she’d have finished her exams by then. 她说那时她会已经考完试了。

He knew by the time he arrived she would have gone home. 他知道他到时她会已经回家。

十四、重点考点原创精练

1. We ______ according to the amount of work we do.

A. pay                      B. will pay                C. will be paying       D. will be paid

2. They haven’t arrived yet but we _____ them at any moment.

A. are expected          B. have expected        C. are expecting         D. will expect

3. We ______ to see you, but it rained.

A. would come          B. had come              C. were coming         D. came

4. I _____ for five minutes; why don’t they come?

A. am calling            B. called                   C. was calling            D. have been calling

5. I _____ your last point — could you say it again?

A. didn’t quite catch  B. don’t quite catch   C. hadn’t quite catch  D. can’t quite catch

6. We _____ to move but are still considering where to go to.

A. are deciding          B. decided                 C. have decided         D. had decided

7. I tried to phone her, but even as I _____ she was leaving the building.

A. phoned                 D. would phone         C. had phoned           D. was phoning

8. "I suppose you ______ that report yet?" "I finished it yesterday, as a matter of fact. "

A. didn’t finish          B. haven’t finished     C. hadn’t finished      D. wasn’t finishing

9. "What’s her name?" "I ____. "

A. forget                   B. forgot                   C. had forgotten        D. am forgetting

10. I ______ quite get what you said; would you speak a little louder?

A. don’t                    B. can’t                    C. didn’t                   D. won’t

11. "The phone is ringing." "______ it."

A. I’m going to get    B. I’ll get                  C. I get                     D. I’ve got

12. I left my pen on the desk and now it’s gone; who _____ it?

A. took                     B. has taken              C. will take               D. had taken

13. It’s good that we ______ to the park because it’s started to rain.

A. don’t go               B. hadn’t gone           C. didn’t go              D. wasn’t going

14. You’ll never guess who I met today — my old teacher! We ______ for 20 years.

A. didn’t meet           B. haven’t met           C. don’t                    D. couldn’t meet

15. I think you must be mistaken about seeing him at the theatre; I’m sure he _____ abroad all week.

A. is                         B. was                      C. has been               D. had been

16. His illness was much more serous than we ______.

A. think                    B. thought                 C. had thought           D. have thought

17. "Have you ever eaten snails?" "No, and I hope I ______."

A. will never             B. never will             C. have never            D. never have

18. I’ll come after the meeting if time ________.

A. permits                 B. is permitting         C. is permitted           D. has permitted

19. I feel sure I ______ her before somewhere.

A. was to meet          B. have met               C. had met                D. would meet

20. You ______ your turn so you’ll have to wait.

A. will miss              B. have missed          C. are missing           D. had missed

21. Look at that little boy wandering about — perhaps he ______ his mother.

A. will lose               B. is losing                C. had lost                D. has lost

22. He didn’t sell half as many computers as he thought he ____.

A. had                      B. would                   C. was                      D. sold

23. I missed what was happening because I _____ very closely.

A. hadn’t watched      B. didn’t watch

C. haven’t watched    D. wasn’t watching

24. Dear me! Just _____ at the time! I _____ no idea it was so late.

A. look, have            B. looking, had          C. look, had              D. looking, have

 

参考答案:1—5 DCCDA  6—10 CDBAC  11—15 BBCBC  16—20 CBABB  21—24 DBDC

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