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.高中英语语法第一轮复习-强调句  

2012-12-27 10:30:22|  分类: 英语专题 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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一、概说

英语中表示强调的方式很多,如口语可用重读来表示强调,书面语中表示强调则较多,如一个比较的简单的办法就是在谓语动词前加do:

He does speak well! 他的确讲得很精彩。

He did said that. 他的确说过那话。

有时也可将要强调的成分置一句首:

This the students can understand. 这一点学生们是理解的。

Standing beside the table was his son. 站在桌旁的是他的儿子。

本章讨论的是使用It+be+被强调成分+that (who)…这一强调句型来表示强调。

二、强调句的基本结构及用法

1. 基本结构:It+be+被强调成分+that (who)…

He bought the book in this shop yesterday.

→It was he that bought the book in this shop yesterday. (强调主语he)

→It was the book that he bought in this shop yesterday. (强调宾语the book)

→It was in this shop that he bought the book yesterday. (强调地点状语in this shop)

注:在该强调结构中,it is (was)…that (who)…为结构词,它通常可以省略,而不影响句子的意思。

2. 关于that与who

当被强调部分指人时,可以用who代that;当被强调部分指物时通常用that。注意:强调事物时,通常不宜用which来代that,另外当强调时间或地点状语时,通常也不能用when / where代that(尤其是当这些状语为介词短语时)。

3. 关于被强调成分

该强调句型中,被强调的成分除了是名词、代词、介词短语等之外, 也可以是从句:

It is when he got back that he knew what had happened. 他回来后才知道所发生的情况。

It was because he loved my money that he married me. 他是因为爱我的钱才同我结了婚。

注:(1) 该句型可强调because引导原因状语从句,但通常不能强调由 since, as引导的原因状语从句,另外也不强调由although引导的让步状语从句。

(2) 该句型可以强调主语,但不强调表语。

三、两种值得注意的强调句结构

1. 强调句的特殊疑问句形式

强调句型的陈述句形式和一般疑问句形式一般还好理解,但若以特殊疑问句形式出现,则很容易误解。比较:

Jim told us the news.(非强调句)

It was Jim that told us the news.(强调句型的陈述句形式)

Was it Jim that told us the news.(强调句型的一般疑问句形式)

Who was it that told us the news.(强调句型的特殊疑问句形式)

特殊疑问句形式的强调句可视为对陈述句强调中的被强调成分提问得来,如对It was yesterday that he arrived. 这一句中的yesterday提问,即得到When was it that he arrived?

2. not...until用于强调句

其基本形式为It is (was) not until…that…。比较:

He didn’t come until his wife left. 他妻子走了之后他才来。

It was not until his wife left that he came. 他妻子走了之后他才来。

They didn’t start until the rain stopped. 直到雨停他们才出发。

It was not until the rain stopped that they started. 直到雨停他们才出发。

四、错误判断强调句的两种情况

1. 将非强调句判为强调句

前面讲到强调时间状语时,通常要用it is…that…,而不用it is … when…,所以有的同学对于下题选择了A:

It was ten o’clock ______ he came back.()

A. that                      B. when                    C. so                        D. which

其实此题最佳答案为B,这不是一个强调句型。When引导的是一个时间状语从句,全句意为“当他回来时,时间是10点钟”。比较以下强调句型:

It was at ten o’clock that he came back.  他是10点钟回来的。

It was after ten o’clock that he came back. 他是在10点过后回来的。

It was before ten o’clock that he came back. 他是在10点前回来的。

再比较:

It is autumn when leaves fall.  当树叶落的时候就是秋天了。

It is in autumn that leaves fall. 树在秋天落叶。

另外,下面的句子也不是强调句型:

(1) It’s a long time ______ I met you last.

A. that                      B. since                    C. when                    D. which

(2) It was more than a year now _____ he had seen her.

A. that                      B. since                    C. when                    D. which

(3) "Was it here _____ you were away talking to a friend?" "Sure. But when I got back there, it was gone."

A. that                      B. while                    C. which                   D. where

以上三题均选B,即前面两句填since,其意为“自从”;第(3)填while,其意为“在…期间”。

2. 将强调句判为非强调句

有些强调句型由于句子本身有一定的特殊性,比如是强调句的特殊疑问句形式,强调句型情态动词或复杂时态等,强调句中的被强调成分过于复杂,强调句与其他从句混杂在一起,等等,这都可能掩盖强调句型的本来面目,从而导致误判:

(1) When was _____ that the general manager left for Japan?

A. he                        B. it                         C. that                      D. since

答案选B,为强调句的特殊疑问句形式。

(2) It might have been John _____ bought a present for Mary yesterday.

A. that                      B. when                    C. what                     D. which

答案选A,为强调句型,只是其中的动词be采用了might have been这一复杂结构。

(3) It was what he meant rather than what he said ______ annoyed me.

A. which                   B. as                         C. what                     D. that

答案选D,为强调句型,被强调部分为 what he meant rather than what he said,句意为“让我生气的不是他说的话,而是他话中的意思”。

(4) It was just in the room _____ he was born _____ he died.

A. where, which        B. that, that               C. where, that            D. which, that

答案选C,为强调句型,被强调成分是 in this room,where he was born 为修饰 the room 的定语从句。

(5) It was lack of money, not of effort, _____ defeated their plan.()

A. which                   B. as                         C. that                      D. what

答案选C,为强调句型,被强调成分为 lack of money, not of effort。

五、重点考点原创精练

1. Who was it ______ put so many large stones on the road?

A. this                      B. that                      C. he                        D. she

2. What a silly mistake it is ______ you’ve made!

A. it                         B. this                      C. that                      D. which

3. It was not until midnight ______ the noise of the street stopped.

A. that                      B. this                      C. since                    D. at which

4. Was _____ that I saw last night at the concert?

A. it you                   B. not you                 C. you                      D. that you

5. It was when she was about to go to bed ______ the telephone rang.

A. since                    B. as                         C. that                      D. then

6. It may have been at Christmas _______ John gave Mary a handbag.

A. before                  B. who                     C. that                      D. when

7. Why was ______ that the old woman was sent to prison?

A. he                        B. it                         C. that                      D. because

8. It was his nervousness in the interview ______ probably lost him the job.

A. which                   B. since                    C. that                      D. what

9. It was the boy _____ had been in prison _____ stole the money.

A. who, where           B. that, how              C. who, that              D. that, which

10. It might be I, who _____ caused the accident, who _____ to answer for it.

A. has, is                  B. have, are               C. has, am                 D. have, am

11. It was _____ I reached there _____ I began to know something about the matter.

A. until, when           B. until, that              C. not until, that        D. not when, that

12. It was _____ my father worked _____ I work now.(

A. where, that           B. where, when         C. that, where            D. that, that

13. It was not until he came back ______ he knew the police were looking for him.

A. which                   B. since                    C. that                      D. before

14. It’s more than half a century _____ the People’s Republic of China was liberated.

A. when                    B. that                      C. since                    D. after

15. It was not ______ you had explained how ______ I managed to do it.

A. for, that                B. until, that              C. for, when              D. until, when

 

参考答案:1—5 BCAAC  6—10 CBCCD  11—15 CACCB

 

 

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